See: the Bibliography database includes a dedicated scrion on reflection.

There are reflective elements in most ePortfolios, for some it is their primary purpose.

Some key points:

  • Reflection as making meaning from experience - and learning from it
  • ePortfolios often provide a structure and 'space' for reflection ('scafolding')
  • Educators often see reflection as a key element for 'Deep' / 'Transformative Learning'
  • Reflection on action vs. reflection in action (Schon, 1983)
  • Reflection for action (Eraut, 1995): important for PDP
  • Reflection is a complex process involving both intellectual and emotional elements (Dewey, 1933)
  • Many people find reflection 'difficult'
  • People who are 'natural' reflectors do not necassarily record their reflections
  • Private reflection vs. facilitated or group reflection
  • Does assessment change the nature and honesty of reflection?

Two good starting points for learning about reflection:

Moon J.Guide for Busy Academics No.4. Learning through reflection. HE Academy, York, 2005

Smith, M. K. (1999) 'Reflection: What constitutes reflection - and what significance does it have for educators? The contributions of Dewey, Schön and Boud et. al. assessed.', the encyclopedia of informal education, (accessed 3rd July 2006).

Two developmental models of reflection relevant to portfolio learning

Model based on Hatton and Smith,1995


Describing events without reasons

Descriptive reflection:

Describing events and providing reasons (mostly personal opinion)

Dialogic reflection:

Mulling over reasons and exploring alternatives - internal dialog

Critical reflection:

Sophistocated reflection, taking account of social and political context

(Hatton and Smith, 1995)

Jenny Moon's Model of learning

Basic seeing and memorising

Making sense:
Coherent reproduction but not related to previous learning

Making meaning:
Integrated and well linked ideas

Working with meaning:
Relating new material with previous learning

Transformative learning:
Strong restructuring of ideas and ability to evaluate the process of learning

Page created by Simon
Last Modified: 17/04/2008